Poultry farming can be defined as the process of raising various domestic birds like chicken, turkey, emu, ducks, geese, etc. for their eggs or meat. This has been a common practice in Nigeria for such a long time that it has become an indispensable part of the farming and agriculture system.
Poultry farming could be considered as one of the most lucrative agricultural business ideas in Nigeria today. It requires not huge capital to start as you can start from the comfort of your house if you have enough space to take the number of birds that you desire.
Poultry Farming In Nigeria
The demand for livestock products, including poultry, is fast expanding in Nigeria and across Africa as a result of population growth and increased urbanization. Poultry farming is one of the fastest growing segments in the Agricultural industry in Nigeria. According to ThisDay Newspaper, Nigeria’s poultry industry is worth over N1.2tn as of 2017.
From a market size perspective, Nigeria’s egg production is the largest in Africa followed by South Africa. Chicken importation (with the exception of day-old-chicks) was banned by Nigeria in 2003, which spurred growth in domestic poultry production. The Nigerian poultry sector is extremely fragmented with most of the chicken raised in ‘backyards’ or on poultry farms with less than 1,000 birds.
Amongst all kinds of poultry farming (chickens, turkeys, geese, and ducks), chicken is the most common one as farmers get a great number of chickens regularly either the egg for food or the farming meat. The high consumption of the end product; chicken and egg are in constant demand in the marketplace and even at various homes in Nigeria today and this makes poultry farming very lucrative as it seems to be a potent source of animal protein outside fish, pork and beef.
5 Steps To Starting A Poultry Farm In Nigeria
Are you planning to start your own poultry farm? If so, then you should enter the business well prepared by considering all of its aspects. Right from setting up some basic equipment to raising the birds and marketing your business, you have to take every step wisely.
Poultry farming is of different types such as duck rearing, rearing chicken, quails, turkey, emu, broiler, etc. However, the principles and practices underlying are the same. Below are the five basic steps you need to follow to start a profitable snail farming business in Nigeria.
Step 1 – Choose The Type Of Poultry Bird To Rear
Before you kickstart your poultry farming business venture, it is important to have a clear picture of what type of poultry breeds to farm (most importantly, poultry breeds that lay a lot of eggs). In Nigeria today, aside from locally grown chickens, there are two major breeds that are common among poultry farmers.
Broilers: Young males and Females raised for meat. They grow from a hatch weight of 40 g to a weight of approximately 1.5 to 2 kg within 6 weeks only.
Layers: Hens used for commercial egg production and then killed for meat. Layer chickens are raised from one day old. They start laying eggs at the age of 18-19 weeks and continue until they are 72-78 weeks of age.
Cockerels: Just like the broilers, cockerels are also for meat production and have a special market demand but then, its growth is very slow, unlike the broilers that grow very fast. Cockerels can survive in many environments.
Step 2 – Select A Suitable Farm Location/Site
Where your poultry farm is situated is very important for your business. To start poultry, you need a farm site. The size of the poultry farmland should be determined by the number of birds you want to rear. If you have enough land at your backyard and can’t afford to acquire a new site, its always better to start small. You can start with what you have but make it a priority to get a better farm as soon as you can afford it.
A good poultry farm site should be away from the chaos and hustle-bustle of the city. It should be calm and pollution free environment. The farm must have adequate, clean and fresh drinking water sources nearby. Also, the site must be free of poultry enemies and predators like foxes and leopards. The site must be easily accessible from main roads so as to ease the transportation of farm products when they are ready for sale.
Step 3 – Provide Good Housing And Shelter For The Birds
When it comes to poultry farming, housing is the next important factor after getting a farm site. A proper poultry housing is necessary for the protection and survival of your commercial poultry birds. The Housing system you choose totally depends on the poultry breeds and farming method. Housing design varies in accordance with various types of poultry raising methods.
The housing to be built should be spacious enough to permit free movement and running of the birds. shelters must be raised adequately to prevent the risk of flooding. It should be spacious enough to permit free movement and running of the birds. In addition, the shelter must be adequately ventilated and protected from sunlight.
Step 4 – Feeding and Medication OF The Poultry BIRDS
For commercial poultry production, good quality, highly nutritious food is a must. Quality and neat feeds keep the bird healthy always and very productive. The feed must be kept clean and dry always, as contaminated feed can infect poultry. Fresh quality and nutritious food is the key to success in poultry farming business. Your birds need not lack water. Lack of adequate water supply can impede their growth.
Proper medication and vaccination can prevent many poultry diseases. As a commercial poultry farmer, you need to have a veterinary doctor that can come run a check on your birds when the need arises. There are various routine medications and vaccinations that help towards the healthiness of your birds to keep them safe from viruses and bacterial infections, peradventure they catch an infectious disease.
Step 5 – Marketing and Sales of THE POULTRY Birds
Poultry farming is a profitable business and the desire of every poultry farmer is to make good sales after every harvest. So you need to pay attention to the marketing and sales aspect of your business. Do not be caught up in the operational aspect of your business so much that you ignore the sales aspect.
Nevertheless, the following ideas can help you in the marketing and sales of your chicken; taking your business online, selling to hotels and restaurants, advertising your products, employing marketers, home delivery, etc.
Cost of Starting A Poultry Farming Business
Many new businesses require a large capital outlay, which is not within reach of most business owners. A typical startup business also takes a long time to produce a return on your investment. By contrast, a small-scale poultry business has a relatively low start-up cost and rapid returns.
You can begin with as little as N50,000 (which basically to covers the cost of buying the day-old chicks and feeding them) and get a 100% return on your capital investment within six months. And because chicks take only 21 days to hatch, you can start generating an income just three weeks after starting. No other business can provide such a quick turnaround.
Commercial poultry farming in Nigeria has created and still creating a profitable business opportunity for Entrepreneurs and can provide a great employment source for job seekers. Most entrepreneurs prefer to produce day-old chicks and sell them to growers, as this option is easier and less risky. The choice, however, is up to you.
As a business owner, you need to get your business finances right from the onset and at the heart of these viable business opportunities in poultry farming are platforms, such as our online invoicing software that helps you keep proper track of your business revenues and expenses with ease.